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Abstract


A Solution Offer to the Problem of Alienation: Justice in Plato's 'Politeia'
This paper discusses in detail the whatness of justice in the city as self-realization as Plato explains it in his dialogue named Politeia using the methodos called dialektike. The paper gives a detailed explanation of how a polis can be just, how the education system, which is conceived as necessary for a city to be just, should be in a city that is just, the distinction between justice in the city and justice in one person, the role of women in this polis and politeia, as Plato explains these in his work named Politeia. The text also discusses the whatness of justice in the city as each person doing his/her own (to tou autou prattein), and justice of one person as symphonia or harmonia, and the relationship these two have with one another. Furthermore the whatness of basic Platonic concepts such as polis, politeia, pleoneksia, tekhne, episteme, psykhe is discussed, and an explanation regarding what it means for a person to be happy according to Plato, and how it is possible; and what relation this has with politike dikaiosyne (justice in a city) is provided. The text tracks in the dialogue basic endoksa (general opinions) such as justice as “giving what one owes to another” or justice as “the advantage of the stronger”, and the problems Plato points out in these doksai. These arguments are not arbitrarily chosen and inserted in his text by Plato, on the contrary trying the endoksa of the multitude or the “herd” might alter the functioning of the politeia in a way that it becomes more just. In addition to this Plato emphasizes the perplexities that he thinks these arguments involve, in such a way which by no means can be described as eristic namely one that involves sophistry, but in such a way that involves making distinctions according to eide. Having analyzed in this way one can argue as a conclusion that the sort of rule Plato suggests (namely “aristocracy”: the rule of the best) turns out to be a rule in which there is no “alienation”, slavery or “slave labor”.

Keywords
Justice, Marx, Plato, polis, alienation.


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