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Abstract


Ernst von Aster and Contemporary Philosophy Lecture Notes
This study is composed of short biographic information about Ernst Von Aster, 20th Century German historian of philosophy, and the lecture notes about “Contemporary Philosophy” that is given by him at Istanbul University Faculty of Literature Philosophy Department in the 1943-1944 academic period. The text which is the lecture notes taken by Cahit Tanyol, a student at the Philosophy Department in the above-mentioned period, in Ottoman Turkish has been translated into Latin alphabet and made ready to be published. Lecture notes are started with the Descartes philosophy, especially his existence approach. Then the views of Descartes and Newton about universe and mechanics are compared. Right after the relations between Newton physics and Kant philosophy are examined. Subsequently, Kant metaphysics and the philosophy of Brentano are compared with each other. After the comparison between Neo-Kantianism and Schelling, the relation between Kant and Husserl is examined. On the other hand, time and space in the Heidegger’s ontology are dealt with. Also, the existing approach in Descartes and Heidegger is investigated. Lastly, Vitalism of Hans Driesch and Spiritualism of Bergson are dealt with. The lecture notes end with the New Positivism after comparison is made between evolution approaches of Bergson and Darwin.

Keywords
Ernst von Aster, lecture notes, contemporary philosophy, physics, existence.


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