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Three Interpretations of Kemalism: Solid, Liquid and Gas Kemalisms
Swinging between being either an ideology or a worldview, Kemalism in Turkey is a complex philosophical concept of politics as well as an instrument for policy-making processes which is far from being simple, with its amorphous nature that can not be described with a clear definition. Inspired by the conceptualization of Tanıl Bora, who has been studying the Turkish right, this study suggests that it is possible to talk about Kemalism's solid, liquid and gas states, in which it is possible to argue that the CHP and its heirs apparently the essence and sua sponte possessed the Kemalist ideology, which is also interpreted as a more liquid philosophical anathema by the Turkish nationalist or some extreme left-wing ideologies. On the other hand, it appears that the center-right actors have also developed a Kemalist interpretation that is more practical, volatile, intertwined with other currents suggesting the gas phase. One of the arguments put forward in this study is the different Kemalisms have developed different relations with Kemalist principles: solid Kemalism emerges as a descriptor and identifier of the main principles of the Kemalism; liquid Kemalism is selectively highlighting what is appropriate for its ideological position from the identified principles. Instead of referring to the prevailing principles of Kemalism, Kemalism in the form of gas phase prefers to present Atatürk's spiritual personality as a principle.

Kemalism, CHP (RPP), ideology, far left, nationalist right, center right.

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